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Lectures Year : 2020

Linear Servo Loop Systems

Thierry Miquel


Following Wikipedia a system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole. System control exists for more than 2000 years. Water clocks control was one of the rst application of system control. Nevertheless the scientic approach appears after the mid of the 19th century. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell (1831- 1879) published a paper entitled "On Governors" within which he described how to derive the linear dierential equations for various governor mechanisms. In 1798 James Watt (1736-1819) developed the automatic control of the speed of a steam motor. The theory of control has been developed during the rst half of the 20th century both in the western countries and in the ex-URSS but the motivations were dierent. Indeed they were based on mathematical interests in the East. For example Nicholas Minorsky (1885-1970) presented in 1922 a clear analysis of the control involved in position control systems and formulated a control law that we now refer to PID control. On the other side engineering issues were the main drivers in the West. In 1914 Lawrence Burst Sperry (1892-1923) invented the rst autopilot which he demonstrated with success in France. In the US telephone repeaters based on electronic amplication of the signal were used around 1920 but the distortion they introduced limited the number that could be used in series. Harold Stephen Black (1898-1983) developed the electronic amplier with negative feedback in 1927 to overcome the issue.
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hal-02987746 , version 1 (04-11-2020)
hal-02987746 , version 2 (17-10-2022)


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  • HAL Id : hal-02987746 , version 2


Thierry Miquel. Linear Servo Loop Systems. Master. France. 2020, pp.208. ⟨hal-02987746v2⟩


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